Six schemes for encoding the words "United States" via telegraphic messaging. Source: H. Nyquist, “Certain factors affecting telegraph speed,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., Apr. 1924, p. 338.

Bernard Dionysius Geoghegan is a media theorist and historian of technology. He works as an assistant professor (Wissenchaftlicher Mitarbeiter) at the Institut für Kulturwissenschaft at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, as part of a program funded by the German Research Foundation. He is also a guest professor in the Psychoanalytische Kulturwissenschaft graduate program co-adminstered by the Berliner Institut für Psychotherapie und Psychoanalyse. In 2012 he received a binational Ph.D. (cotutelle) degree from the Fakultät Medien of Bauhaus-Universität Weimar and the Screen Cultures program of Northwestern University. His research interests include digital media, historical epistemology, visual culture studies, software studies, cultural technologies, and the history of electrical engineering. Bernard has held posts and fellowships at the American University of Paris, Harvard University, MIT, the Pompidou Center, Northwestern University, and the Children's Media Project. His essays appear in journals including Critical Inquiry, The IEEE Annals on the History of Computing, Theory, Culture & Society, and Interaction Studies. He may be found online at Twitter, iTunes, or Google+ and reached by email at His CV is available here.